Personal Taxation 2011/12

Personal Taxation


Income tax and capital gains tax rates
Starting rate (savings income only)*£2,560£2,440
Basic rate band35,00037,400
Higher rate band35,001-150,00037,401-150,000
Additional rateover 150,000over 150,000
* The starting rate does not apply to general income; it only applies to savings income if general income less allowances is less than £2,560. This starting rate band is included in the basic rate band of £35,000.
Rates differ for:   GeneralSavingsDividend
Allocation of rate bands
Taxable income uses up the rate bands in the following order:

  • ‘general income’ (employment, business profits, rent)
  • ‘savings income’ (mainly interest)
  • ‘dividends’ (mainly distributions from companies)
Extension of basic and higher rate bands
A taxpayer who pays personal (including stakeholder) pension policy premiums, or gives cash to charity under the Gift Aid scheme, increases the basic rate band by the grossed up equivalent of the payment. This means that more tax is paid at the basic rate and less is paid at the higher rate.
Filing of return and payment
2011/12 personal tax return: due to be filed by 31 January 2013 (online) or 31 October 2012 (paper).

  • penalty for late return: £100 (not restricted to tax due)

    2010/11 tax payable:

  • tax on employment income paid under PAYE each month
  • basic rate liability on savings and dividends usually settled by receiving the income net of tax paid or credited
  • balance of tax due under self assessment (SA):
    – payments on account due 31 January 2012 and 31 July 2012, based on the 2010/11 SA income tax and Class 4 NIC
    – balance, plus any CGT, due 31 January 2013, with the first payment on account for 2012/13

    Missing any payment dates leads to interest; missing the balancing payment date by 30 days will lead to a 5% surcharge and a further 5% surcharge if not paid 5 months after that.

Main personal allowances
Personal income tax allowance***£7,475£6,475
CGT annual exemption10,60010,100
Blind person’s allowance1,9801,890
Age allowances
Personal allowance (PA)
  • Age 65 – 74 in the tax year
  • Age 75 and over in the tax year
  • Minimum*
Married couple’s allowance (MCA)** (also for civil partners)
  • Age 75 and over
  • Minimum*
Income Limit*24,00022,900
* If the taxpayer’s total income exceeds the income limit (extended for gift aid and pension contributions), one-half of that excess is deducted from the allowances – first from the PA until the minimum is reached, then from the MCA until the minimum is reached.
** Amount depends on age of older spouse; allowed at 10%; nil if born after 5 April 1935; reduced if marriage or civil partnership took place during the tax year.
***Personal allowances are reduced by £1 for every £2 of income over £100,000, so the PA is nil when income is £114,950 or more.
Main personal reliefs
Rent-a-room exemption for letting out part of the taxpayer’s only or main residence: gross income of £4,250pa.

Gift aid: on a cash gift to charity, the charity can reclaim 20/80 (25%) of the donation from HMRC if the donor makes a declaration. The donor increases the basic rate band by the gross gift (i.e. donation x 100/80). The market value of gifts of land or quoted shares can be deducted from taxable income for full tax relief, and the charity pays no tax on the gift received. Also the “Give as you earn” scheme allows charitable gifts to be made from pre-tax pay, which reduces tax under PAYE.