Employment income is charged to both income tax (as ‘general’ income) and to Class 1 National Insurance Contributions. Tax and NIC are normally paid by the employer through the PAYE system, under which the ‘notice of coding’ makes adjustments for tax reliefs due and some tax due on other income. An employee who has overpaid or underpaid tax at the end of the year should complete a tax return and settle the liability as described in Personal Taxation, or claim a repayment.
If the tax underpaid is up to £3,000 and the 2014/15 tax return is submitted by 31 October 2015, or e-filed by 30 December 2015, the underpayment can be settled through PAYE for 2016/17 rather than being collected on 31 January 2016.
Employers and employees both contribute at rates dependent on the level of earnings during a weekly, monthly or annual earnings period.
|LEL: lower earnings limit
|PT: primary threshold
|ST: secondary threshold
|UAP: upper accrual point
|UEL: upper earnings limit
No NIC are payable by employee or employer on earnings up to the PT (employees) or ST (employer). No NIC are payable by the employer on earnings up to the UST for employees aged under 21 at the date of the payment.
Earnings between the LEL and the PT must be reported by the employer, and the employee receives credit towards the State Pension, but no employee NIC are payable.
Rates of NIC on earnings above the PT/ST depend on whether the employee is within the State Second Pension or is ‘contracted out’ as a member of a salary-related pension scheme.
|PT/ST – UAP
|UAP – UEL
A person with more than one employment can defer the payment of some employee NIC until after the end of the tax year. The total amount payable is then checked and limited such that the full 12% rate is only applied to income between the PT and the UEL. Many employers can claim an annual reduction in NIC of up to £2,000, regardless of the number of employees on the payroll. The employees’ NIC is unaffected.
Employee benefits are usually valued at a ‘cash equivalent’ and are then charged to income tax on the employee and Class 1A NIC (at 13.8%) on the employer. Employee contributions for private use usually reduce the taxable amount. The cash equivalent is generally based on the cost to the employer of providing the benefit, but the following are charged according to a statutory formula.
Cars provided by the employer: a percentage of the original list price of the car, depending on the CO2 emissions rating of the car.
|5% of list price
|9% of list price
|13% of list price
|14% of list price
|1% addition for every extra 5g/km
|max 37% benefit
|210 and above
For diesel cars add 3% (min. is 8%, max. still 37%, reached at 195g/km).
Fuel provided by the employer for private use in a company car is charged without reduction for contributions unless all private fuel is paid for by the employee, in which case there is no benefit.
To calculate the taxable amount, the percentage used to calculate car benefit is applied to a standard figure of £22,100.
Vans provided by the employer for an employee’s use are charged at a flat rate of £3,150. If fuel is provided as well, an additional £594 is charged. If private use of a van is restricted to home-to-work travel, there is no tax charge. The taxable benefit of using an electric van for private journeys is £630.
Use of other assets is charged at 20% of the original cost of the assets to the employer, or the value when first made available to the employee.
Loans of money that exceed £10,000 at any point in the tax year are charged on the excess of the official rate (3% from 6.4.2015) over any interest actually paid by the employee to the employer.
Many employee benefits are not charged to tax. A full list cannot be given here, but some of the principal onesare:
|First 10,000 business miles
The 45p mileage rate is for business use of an employee’s own car. Where the employer provides the car, allowances should not reflect costs already borne by the employer. HMRC publish advisory mileage rates which are accepted as covering the cost of fuel for different engine sizes and fuel types. They change four times a year, so the current rates have to be checked at www.hmrc.gov.uk/cars/fuel_company_cars.htm.