Employment income is charged to both income tax (as ‘general’ income) and to Class 1 National Insurance Contributions. Tax and NIC are normally paid by the employer through the PAYE system, under which the ‘notice of coding’ makes adjustments for tax reliefs due and some tax charges separate from salary. An employee who has overpaid or underpaid tax at the end of the year should complete a tax return and settle the liability as described in Personal Taxation.
If the tax underpaid is up to £3,000 and the 2013/14 tax return is submitted by 31 October 2014, or e-filed by 30 December 2014, the underpayment can be settled through PAYE for 2015/16 rather than being collected on 31 January 2015.
Employers and employees both contribute at rates dependent on the level of earnings during a weekly, monthly or annual earnings period.
|LEL: lower earnings limit||£109||£472||£5,668|
|PT: primary threshold||149||646||7,755|
|ST: secondary threshold||148||641||7,696|
|UAP: upper accrual point||770||3,337||40,040|
|UEL: upper earnings limit||797||3,454||41,450|
No NIC are payable by employee or employer on earnings up to the PT (employees) or ST (employer).
Earnings between the LEL and the PT must be reported by the employer, and the employee receives credit towards the State Pension, but no employee NIC are payable.
Rates of NIC on earnings above the PT/ST depend on whether the employee is within the State Second Pension (S2P) or is ‘contracted out’ as a member of a salary-related pension scheme. It is no longer possible to contract out using a money purchase pension scheme.
|PT/ST – UAP||12.0%||10.6%||13.8%||10.4%|
|UAP – UEL||12.0%||12.0%||13.8%||13.8%|
A person with more than one employment can defer the payment of some employee NIC until after the end of the tax year. The total amount payable is then checked and limited so the full 12% rate is only applied to income between the PT and the UEL.
Employee benefits are usually valued at a ‘cash equivalent’ and are then charged to income tax on the employee and Class 1A NIC (at 13.8%) on the employer. The cash equivalent is generally based on the cost to the employer of providing the benefit, but the following are charged according to a statutory formula. Employee contributions for private use usually reduce the taxable amount.
Cars provided by the employer: a percentage of the original list price of the car, depending on the CO2 emissions rating of the car. Zero emission cars are not currently charged.
|5% of list price||1-75g/km|
|10% of list price||76-94g/km|
|11% of list price||95g/km-99g/km|
|1% addition||100,105,110 etc.|
|max 35% benefit||over 214g/km|
For diesel cars add 3% (min. is 8%, max. still 35%). There is no discount for the level of business mileage or the age of the car.
Fuel provided by the employer for private use in a company car is charged without reduction for contributions unless all private fuel is paid for by the employee, in which case there is no benefit.
To calculate the taxable amount, the percentage used to calculate car benefit is applied to a standard figure of £21,100.
Vans provided by the employer for an employee’s use are charged at a flat rate of £3,000. If fuel is provided as well, an additional £564 is charged. If private use of a van is restricted to home-to-work travel, there is no tax charge.
Use of assets is charged at 20% of the original cost of the assets to the employer, or the value when first made available to the employee.
Loans of money that exceed £5,000 at any point in the tax year are charged on the excess of the official rate (4% since 2010/11) over any interest actually paid by the employee to the employer.
Many employee benefits are not charged to tax. A full list cannot be given here, but some of the principal ones are:
|First 10,000 business miles||Extra miles||Each passenger|
The 45p mileage rate is for business use of an employee’s own car. Where the employer provides the car, allowances should not reflect costs already borne by the employer. HMRC publish advisory mileage rates which are accepted as covering the cost of fuel for different engine sizes and fuel types. They change four times a year, so the current rates have to be checked at www.hmrc.gov.uk/cars/fuel_company_cars.htm.
Generally, employees are charged to income tax on the value of shares that they are given or issued by their employer, less any amount paid for the shares. This applies to ‘free shares’ and to shares acquired under option schemes. NIC are also charged if the company is quoted, or the shares can be easily sold.
If the employer operates one of the following ‘HMRC-approved’ schemes, the tax charge may be eliminated, reduced or deferred.
Enterprise management incentives – qualifying trading companies (fewer than 250 employees) can grant options to buy up to £250,000 worth of shares to selected employees. These shares may qualify for the lower 10% rate of CGT on disposal.
Approved company share option plans – share options to buy up to £30,000 of shares can be granted to employees.
Approved savings-related share option plans – employees contribute to a Save As You Earn plan (max. £250 a month) to save the money needed to exercise options.
Employee shareholder status – tax advantages exchanged for some employment rights (planned but controversial).